Social marketing strategies have been found to have positive impacts on social impacts within a community (Smith, 2011). With the problem of littering in Durham, especially at bus stops, identifying the type of littering that was occurring was important in determining how to change littering behaviors of bus stop users. Chris G. Sibley and James H. Liu (2003) describe littering behavior as being one of two types: active and passive. Active littering occurs when a person drops litter on the ground while walking and continues on, passive littering occurs when someone is seated or waiting, drops litter, and fails to remove it upon their exit (Sibley & Liu, 2003). Assumptions made about bus stops in the city of Durham were that bus stop users were practicing passive littering while waiting for their bus to arrive.
Original Youtube video here: GIF Buddy Software